Geosystems Engineering




      Geosystems Engineering



Local Petrophysical equations can be transformed into Density and Velocity parameters.
These can be spatially distributed with the SPSI method on the the 3D Seismic Volume 
together with other Related Petrophyscal Properties like Water Saturation or Resistivity.
This increases resolution and accuracy in the interpretation process.


      DRho/Rho Baseline Model            Rho_be Model with Resistivity effect 






An innovative patented method to unify the Seismic and Petrophysical theory and a new step to the implementation of a wide maximum resolution Static Model, positioning all Petrophysical Static and Dynamic Properties on the 3D Seismic Volume.



Diese Erfindung beschreibt eine Methode zum Prozessing, zur Inversion und zur Integration von seismischen und petrophysikalischen Daten. Diese Methode führt zur Implementierung eines Modells für die seismische und petrophysikalische Interpretation, um die geologischen Strukturen und die Physik der Gesteine im Untergrund zu beschreiben. Sie ist eine Innovation für die Darstellung petrophysikalischer Parameter und dessen Beziehungen zu seismischen Attributen auf dem „3D Seismic Volume“.
Die Methode vereint Seismik und Petrophysik in einer einzigen Theorie.


      Geosystems Engineering




Petrophysic-Consultants in Munich offers innovative SEISMIC INVERSION AND INTERPRETATION services.
This services are offered in Munich with modern professional software and scientific competence




                 " DEEP DIRECTIVITY SYSTEMS "

A new patented technology for Deep Geothermal Systems, a key for the future of the renewable energy.
DDS is a new scientific innovation. A method for the universal development of geothermal projects not only in areas of high geothermal gradient, but in every part of the world.



“Using these technologies, according to DDS concepts, it becomes possible to 
 circulate water within predefined flow lines, in continuous flow and in a closed
 system, for more than 100 kilometers, while keeping most of or all the flow line 
 system below a predefined depth.
 This depth could be, for example 3000 m and more, so that the water flow is for
 most of the flow path length in a formation, the temperature of which is above 
 110 degrees Celsius, which is an ideal minimum temperature level  enabling
 the production of electrical power.”

DDS (Deep Directivity Systems) is an innovation in the field of geothermal exploration and production. It was originally presented a few months ago by GeoNeurale as a technology to be operative developed by Petrophysic-Consultants, but it appears that up to now few people really recognized the enormous potential thereof for the deep geothermal and oil and gas exploration and production.
DDS comprises a set of state of the art reservoir development techniques adapted for use in deep geothermal energy development projects. In other words, DDS comprises combinations of existing technologies from the oil and gas exploration and production field, which are transferred to the development of deep geothermal energy projects, enabling boosting the flexibility and efficiency of deep geothermal projects.
In this article, a few visionary example applications are presented and DDS main technological aspects are conceptually explained before the background of the state of the art of technology used in deep geothermal projects.

The technology base for DDS (or: What are its roots and bases ?)

A first main technology basis of DDS is horizontal drilling, an application that has been developed in the past to improve recovery in oil and gas reservoirs. 
The first horizontal well was drilled in 1929 and at that time the potential of this technology was not fully encompassed. At present, it is possible to drill boreholes into the earth subsurface with lengths greater than 12000 m using horizontal drilling technology. Horizontal drilling creates a continuous borehole, and hence a regular flow-line from the surface to the well shoe.
A second main technology basis of DDS comprises reservoir stimulation techniques including hydraulic fracturing, suitably adapted to make permeable the rock formations found at the typical depths, ca. 3000 meters or more, of deep geothermal reservoirs.
DDS is a system of concepts using horizontal drilling and hydraulic reservoir fracturing for creating virtually indefinite lengths of downhole flow line connectivity.
The significance of DDS will be described together with a few examples of  the potential thereof.

Using these technologies, according to DDS concepts, it becomes 
  possible to circulate water within predefined flow lines, in continuous
  flow and in a closed system, for more than 100 kilometers, while keeping
  most of or all the flow line system below a predefined depth.
  This depth could be, for example 3000 m and more, so that the water flow
  is for most of the flow path length in a formation, the temperature of
  which is above 110 degrees Celsius, which is an ideal minimum
  temperature level  enabling the production of electrical power.

What can DDS make possible?

Envisage a futuristic mind game to describe the potential of our DDS technology and see the advantages which this could bring in the future.
Imagine that new drilling methods have become available for drilling a well in a few, possibly only one day.
With such drilling efficiency (ROP) and using the concepts of DDS technology, it would be possible to drill, within a few years, a deep flow-line system connecting Europe to America and/or Europe to China with flow lines running steadily below 3000 m or more of depth and back to Europe to the same point, where the hole was started to be drilled as an injection well (initial spud-point).
In this way, it would be possible to create an intercity system of geothermal power plants, deployed for instance along a highway for supplying electricity-driven cars with electric energy.
This is only one example of how a deep geothermal project could be indefinitely extended using DDS technology.
Between theory and technical realization, the following challenging factors need to be solved resp. overcome:
1. Hydraulic pressure loss would be directly proportional to the thermal efficiency and their ratio would need to be optimized.
2. In this respect, the positioning of downhole pumps would be a critical issue.

The above is only an example of extreme (and expensive) solutions that would require further technological innovations to achieve faster drilling.
However the concept and technology of DDS systems are available already now.

Smaller projects employing DDS technology at the city scale are already
now an economically feasible and technically realistic solution for
intercity geothermal power-plants having zero CO
2 emissions, producing
enough energy to supply the energy need of two small towns.

DDS technology results from the scientific challenge of the firstly mentioned author and from many years of study and experience in the oil and geothermal exploration industry.
Bringing DDS technology to application will require a comparable level of creativity based on an attitude of scientific integrity and the integration of a specific scientific and technological philosophy.


Up to now, deep geothermal energy was mainly exploited using the following two methods:
- Hydrogeothermal systems

- Hot Dry Rock (HDR) systems.
Hydrogeothermal systems are confined, however, to special areas,
corresponding to a relatively small part of the earth surface.  Their utility is therefore very limited.
Hydrogeothermal systems are mostly associated with the presence of factured and karsted carbonate formations, which are scarcely distributed. Moreover, the risk of project failure in hydrothermal reservoirs is not negligible due to the high costs of required efficient seismic investigations and the uncertainty of geophysical methods to identify the presence of water
and the water flow lines in deep formations.
In Hot Dry Rock (HDR) projects, water is circulated through an injection well, the respective HDR formation and a production well, from which the water is, after extraction of heat energy using heat exchangers at the surface, re-injected into the injection well.  In particular, the water is pumped into the injection well and down to the shoe. Between the shoe of the injection well and the shoe of the production well, a system of natural fractures is required to provide a natural flow stream for the water circulating from the injection well and the production well. Upon flowing through the rock porosity / permeability system, the water is heated due to its contact with the hot rock matrix/fluid interface and transports the according heat energy to the surface.
Generally, the overall heath energy extraction at depth must be compensated by the natural geothermal heat flow, which radiates principally from the earth mantle outwards to the earth crust.
If a natural system of fractures does not exist or is inefficient to provide the required flow rate in order to run the geothermal energy extraction and production process, then an artificial fracture system must be provided through downhole fracturing operations.
In the producer well, downhole pumps provide the flow, in order to pump the hot water from the shoe to the surface. Proper downhole filters have to be installed for sand and solid control.
The hot water flowing to the surface passes through a heat exchange system,e.g. of a Kalina cycle or other type of power plant.

higher temperatures, e.g. above 150 degree Celsius, the water will partially flow in the vapor phase, which increases its concentration at increasing temperatures.
In reservoirs with temperatures around about 300 to 400 degree Celsius, the flowing phase is only vapor. This vapor can directly flow through the turbines of the power plant.
The water/vapor flowing out of the power plant is re-injected into the thermal reservoir through the injection well and the circulation cycle starts again.
The difficulty of a HDR project is to manage and provide downhole an essentially horizontal system of fractures which are hermetically confined in order to avoid a dispersive flow.The flow directivity must be confined from the injector to the producer well. If there is not a natural reservoir directly providing high pressure steam and the necessary permeability, then fracture or stimulation operations must be applied in order to provide a suitable connectivity flow system in the geothermal reservoir.
In a fracture stimulation operation, water is pressed at high pressure cycles downhole and further injected through perforations in the well casing into the surrounding reservoir rock formation in order to overcome the minimum horizontal stress field (Sigma-3). This will generally produce a fracture that is perpendicular to Sigma-3 and in the Sigma-1/Sigma-2 plane, i.e. in a sub-vertical fracture.
A difficult task in controlling a fracture process relates to the difficulty of identifying with the required precision suitable geomechanical parameters allowing determining the heterogeneity of the rock
matrix/porosity system and the direction of the closure stress.
If the fracture stimulation process is not properly planned and the parameters influencing such process are not sufficiently determined in detail, control on the fracture directivity, especially in the far-field region with respect to the downhole center of the fracturing operation water injection might be lost. As a consequence, in the production phase the flow might not be focused in the desired direction and this might strongly reduce the geothermal energy recovery at the producer well.
The artificial fracture system might also intercept natural fractures, which might lead to water dispersive flow, fluid losses and system inefficiency.
In the absence of effective stress confinement, (barrier) layers above and below the fracture horizon, the vertical fracture propagation might reach permeable layers above with lower temperature or high permeability layers, which in turn might lead to flow dispersion.
For running an efficient geothermal cycle, a flow rate of more than 100 liter/second at temperatures possibly above 110 degree Celsius are needed to this aim, dispersive flow is a serious thread in geothermal production.


Deep Directivity Systems (DDS) can be defined as a combination of (latest and/or future) drilling, directional drilling control, reservoir stimulation, extensive fracture generation and well completion technologies.
The drilling technologies are for drilling multi-directional wells and/or systems of mutually interconnected wells and/or well systems, which are planned and directed to reach, from possibly only one or more spud points, interconnect and optimally permeate a plurality of deep geothermal reservoirs (formations) from which the geothermal energy will produced to the possibly only one spud point at the earth surface, where sufficient geothermal power is supplied from the plurality of reservoirs so that an electric power plant can be operated continuously.
The directional drilling control technologies are for controlling the complex subsurface path of the drill head. The reservoir stimulation and new fracture generation technologies are for permeably connecting respective large volumes of a deep geothermal reservoir formation to the plurality of respective wells which permeate the reservoir formation.
The well completion technologies are for completing the casings which are introduced into the wells and for providing in a casing wall the apertures required to provide the water flow communication from the interior of the respective well (injector) to the surrounding geothermal reservoir and further another well (producer) penetrating the same reservoir, thus closing a water flow loop for extracting geothermal energy from the respective reservoir and comprising the respective injector well, said reservoir and the respective producer well.
Having examined case studies of some failed geothermal projects, the DDS concept has been invented and developed conceptually with the aim to optimally control the flow directivity in the geothermal reservoir at the maximum possible resolution scale and efficiently and hermetically close and interconnect respective water flow circulation systems reaching one or plural geothermal reservoirs, thereby avoiding dispersion by waterflooding.
A special workflow of reservoir characterization studies has been setup, as a specific program for the planning and implementation of DDS projects.

This comprises 3D seismic multi-component acquisition for the target identification and drilling program planning, specific suites of LWD and wireline petrophysical logs measurements for the construction of a static geological structural and electrofacies model.
One of the relevant advantageous features of DDS is that the water flow  circulation system can be designed, re-designed and extended such that the energy conversion system provided at the earth surface can be adapted to virtually any desired scale in terms of power and efficiency.

For example, if initially a small scale project comprising a 2 Megawatt electrical power plant unit has been realized, this project can be virtually indefinitely extended, e.g. by adding new component units at the earth surface location for increasing the total power to 10, 100 or 1000Megawatt and by developing new deep geothermal reservoirs and flow-connecting these to the respective earth surface location.
Using the concepts of DDS, a deep geothermal project can be planned conceptually as a predefinable, locally optimized, turn-key system, in which the dimension and efficiency can be designed already in the pre-planning phase, thereby reducing the uncertainty and project risk to a minimum level.
Compared to hydrothermal projects, which are limited to only a few areas in the world, and to Hot Dry Rock projects, which generally bear a considerable risk, projects designed using DDS system concepts can be realized in more than 95% of the earth's surface, which renders to such projects the maximum possible design flexibility and a vast spectrum of applications.

In result, the novel DDS concept for designing deep geothermal projects will bring increased project efficiency and lower risk with respect to any other kind of geothermal projects.
The novel DDS concept invented by GeoNeurale represents a great evolution in geothermal technology and in the renewable energy sector.

Angelo Piasentin (GeoNeurale, Munich/Germany)
Dr. Stephan Klauer (SK-Patent Law Office, Munich/Germany)



For Informations   Email:   Tel 089 8969 111 8   Fax 089 8969 111 7



Petrophysic-Consultants new integrated reservoir characterization concept for geothermal reservoir analysis is operative and was applied for the deep geothermal project in Koenigsdorf. 

Petrophysic-Consultants is the first group in this sector to apply a full inhouse integrated petrophysical analysis to evaluate the target area and support the seismic interpretation.